“Eingeschränkte Erwerbspflicht” versus “gesteigerte Erwerbsobliegenheit”

In einem viel beachteten Urteil zum Unterhaltsrecht hat der Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) festgelegt, dass Elternteile von ihren Partnern auch dann Unterhalt für sich selbst verlangen können, wenn die Kinder älter als 3 Jahre sind und ganztags betreut werden. Eigentlich hatte der Gesetzgeber festgelegt, dass ab einem Alter von 3 Jahren der allein betreuende Elternteil keinen Unterhalt mehr verlangen könne, ließ aber Abweichungen von diesem Grundsatz nach nicht genau festgelegten Kriterien zu. Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich liegt es an meinen mangelnden juristischen Fachkenntnissen, dass ich folgendes nicht verstehe:

  • Der BGH führt aus, dass eine Verpflichtung zur Vollzeiterwerbstätigkeit des betreuenden Elternteils “überobligatorisch” sein könne. Diese “überobligationsmäßige Doppelbelastung” könne für einen Anspruch auf Unterhalt über 3 Jahre hinaus sprechen. Was für ein Gegensatz zum Konzept der “gesteigerten Erwerbsobliegenheit”, das Unterhaltspflichtige mit voller Härte trifft: Reicht sein Einkommen zur Befriedigung des Unterhaltsanspruchs nicht aus, muss er “alle Erwerbsmöglichkeiten ausschöpfen und auch einschneidende Veränderungen in seiner eigenen Lebensgestaltung in Kauf nehmen”. Er ist verpflichtet, “bei Arbeitsstellen mit geringeren Einkommen ist entweder eine neue Arbeitsstelle oder eine weitere Beschäftigung zu suchen, um zusätzliche Mittel zu erlangen, etwa zusätzliche Gelegenheits- und Aushilfstätigkeiten.” Gegebenenfalls muss “unter Inkaufnahme eines Wohnortwechsels gegebenenfalls im gesamten Bundesgebiet eine Arbeit übernommen werden”. Die zu erwartenden Bemühungen bei der Arbeitsuche gehen über die Verpflichtungen eines Arbeitslosengeld-Empfängers weit hinaus: “Eigene Annoncen sind ebenso zu erwarten wie “Blind-Bewerbungen” bei allen [!] in Betracht kommenden Arbeitgebern.” In Verbindung mit der Maßgabe, dass alle Tätigkeiten einschließlich Hilfsarbeiten ausgeübt werden müssen, dürften dies alle rund 2 Millionen Betriebe in Deutschland sein. Für das alles trifft den Unterhaltspflichtigen die volle Beweislast. Kann er das Gericht nicht überzeugen, muss er sich Einkommen zurechnen lassen, die er gar nicht hat. Fazit: Was bei dem einen “überobligatorisch” ist, reicht bei dem anderen noch lange nicht aus.
  • Wie um alles in der Welt kommt der “Bundesverband alleinerziehender Mütter und Väter” zu der Einschätzung, dass dieses Urteil mehr Klarheit bringe? Klare Kriterien dafür, wann ein Unterhaltsanspruch auf über 3 Jahr hinaus bestehen kann, hat die Entscheidung doch gar nicht erbracht. Diese Frage wurde vielmehr an das Oberlandesgericht zurückverwiesen. Selbst wenn dieses zu einer Regelung findet, kann ein anderes Gericht in dieser Frage ganz anders entscheiden. Klar ist nur, dass auch nach 3 Jahren noch Unterhaltsanspruch bestehen kann, was ja nun auch so im Gesetz drinsteht.
  • Mir scheint, als hätte der Gesetzgeber gewollt, dass der Unterhaltsanspruch bis zum Kindesalter von 3 Jahren die Regel, danach aber die Ausnahme sein solle, die begründet werden müsse und damit einzelfallbezogen ist. Nun aber meint der BGH, dass aufgrund der hohen Belastung des betreuenden Elternteils ein Generalisierung des Unterhaltsanspruchs nach Alter des Kindes doch möglich sein könne (freilich ohne sich in dieser Frage selbst festzulegen). Genau so eine Regelung wie das alte Modell, nachdem der Unterhaltsempfänger generell nach 8 Jahren Teilzeit und nach 15 Vollzeit arbeiten muss, wollte der Gesetzgeber aber ausdrücklich nicht mehr.
  • Vollkommen unbegreiflich ist mir die Einlassung der Familienrechtsexpertin des Deutschen Anwaltsvereins, Ingeborg Rakete-Dombeck. In einem “Tagesspiegel”-Interview sagt sie: “Ich fand es etwas strikt, Erwerbstätigkeit als Standard zu setzen, wenn Kinder betreut werden. Der BGH rudert jetzt wieder etwas zurück. Das ist ja in Ordnung, da die Gesellschaft eben noch nicht so weit ist, wie der Gesetzgeber es will.” Hallo? Wie weit die Gesellschaft ist, entscheidet also ab sofort der BGH? Und dabei darf er auch den Willen des Gesetzgebers ignorieren, der bekanntlich aus Außerirdischen besteht und keineswegs den politischen Willen der Mehrheit der Gesellschaft repräsentiert? Oder muss man Jurist sein, um so eine Aussage zu verstehen?

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